Melbourne has a moderate
oceanic climate and is notorious for its changeable weather conditions.
This is due in part to the city's flat topography, its situation on Port Phillip
Bay, and the presence of the Dandenong Ranges to the
east, a combination that creates weather systems that often circle the bay. The phrase "four
seasons in one day" is part of Melbourne's popular culture and observed
by many visitors to the city.
Melbourne is colder than other mainland Australian capital cities in the winter. The
lowest maximum on record is 4.4 °C (39.9 °F), on 4 July 1901. However,
snowfalls are extremely rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on 25
July 1986 and the most recent snowfalls in the outer eastern suburbs and Mount Dandenong were
on 10 August 2005, 15 November 2006, 25 December 2006 and 10 August 2008. More commonly,
Melbourne experiences frosts and fog in winter.
During the spring, Melbourne commonly enjoys extended periods of mild weather and
clear skies. Melbourne is also known to have extremely hot, and dry summers, with maximum
temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F).